This lesson will introduce us to a new set of sentence patterns of Japanese grammar of JLPT level N3. Most of the sentence patterns which we are going to learn in this lesson have only one use. They are very easy to understand and can be quickly learnt. Without any further discussion let’s directly start learning the sentence patterns.
| 1. When you hear some news or something from someone else and while talking about that which you have heard, you make use of the phrase “~ni yoru to/ ~ ni yoreba” in Japanese grammar. The actual meaning of this phrase is “on the basis of” or “according to”. Noun is used before this phrase. Read the following examples which explains the use and meaning of this sentence pattern.
- (denki: weather; yohou: forecast; According to the weather forecast, tomorrow it might rain.)
- (According to my friends this movie is very interesting.)
2. In this sentence pattern we will learn the use of the grammar pattern “~wo/o chuushin ni shite/ ~wo/o chuushin ni/ ~wo/o chuushin to shite”. This pattern means “by keeping something as a center”, “by focusing something” or “by giving something important”. Before this phrase noun is used. Following are few examples related to this sentence pattern.
- (shouten: shops; Focusing the railway station as the center, many shops have been built around it.)
- (sangyou: industry; Taking automobile industry as a focus, advancement is being done.)
3. A sentence pattern used in Japanese grammar which means “irrespective of” or “without being influenced by something” is “~wo/o towazu/ ~wa towazu”. A noun always comes before this phrase whenever used in a sentence. Following are few examples related to the use of this sentence pattern.
- (In this hospital irrespective of day or night emergency patients are admitted.)
- (Irrespective of your experience and academic record we will recruit those who are interested or wish to do something.)
4. When you want to represent one from the entire group and give importance to only one thing or a person and then talk about the other things and people at that time “~wo/o hajime/ ~wo/o hajime to suru” sentence pattern is used in Japanese grammar. “Hajime” basically means first or beginning. Some examples related to this sentence pattern are given below.
- (Starting with your parents and then the other people of the family how is their health?)
- (The Parliament members and then the other inspection party visited the damaged site.)
5. Another new sentence pattern used in Japanese grammar which means “on the basis of” is “~wo/o motoni/ ~wo/o motoni shite”. Similar to the other sentence patterns which we have learnt till now, in this sentence pattern noun is used before this phrase. Below we have provided you with some examples to clearly understand the meaning and use of this sentence pattern.
- (touhyou: voting: shinsashi: judgment; On the basis of the voting of the fans, the best 10 songs of this year will be decided.)
- (Non-fiction means a story based on facts.)
6. The sentence pattern which we are going to learn now has only one use but the meaning changes a little according to the context of the sentence. The phrase is “~ue/ ~ueni” which means not only but also, in addition to or besides. Examples of the use of this sentence pattern are given below.
- (Otaku: house; omiyage: gifts; In addition to feast I also received gifts at Mr. Hayashi’s house.)
- (In addition to intelligence she also has a good personality.)
- (This machine is not only easy to use but is also convenient as it is light weight.)
7. The sentence pattern which we will be introduced to now is “~uchi ni/ ~nai uchi ni”. This grammar pattern has two different uses and meaning accordingly. In both the uses before the phrase either a verb, i-adjective, na-adjective or noun is used. In case of verbs you can use either the root verb form or the nai form. When you want to use the i-adjective the “i” remains as it is and then the phrase is used. Similarly in case of na-adjectives na remains and the phrase is added to it. However in case of nouns “no” joins the noun and the phrase. In other words particle “no” comes between the noun and the phrase. Let’s study each use carefully along with their respective examples.
A) The first use of this sentence pattern is when you express your wish of doing something before the current condition or situation changes. So in short it means during, till, before. Read the following examples which clearly show you this use and its meaning.
- (Till the time I am in Japan I wish to visit Kyoto at least once.)
- (Till you are young it is better to experience various things.) B) The second use helps you to tell about a particular condition which was not present earlier but has occurred due to something that you did. It generally means “while”. Read the following examples.
- (namida: tears; While I was listening to her talk I got tears in my eyes.)
- (I was cold first but my body became hot while I was running.)
8. The last sentence pattern of this lesson which we will study is “~kawari ni”. This sentence pattern is used in three different ways. All the three uses have been explained in detail below along with the appropriate examples. A) In the first use of “~kawari ni” always the dictionary form or root verb form of the verb comes before this phrase. This pattern is used when you want to say that instead of doing this I did that other thing. Hence in short we can say that it means “in place of” or “instead of”. For example
- (Ongakukai: musical concert; Instead of going to the musical concert, it is better to buy 3 CD.)
B) The second use of this sentence pattern is same as the B use of the grammar pattern “~ni kawatte”. This use means on behalf of or as a representative of. In this use before “kawari ni” always noun followed by the “no” particle comes. In other words “no” particle joins the noun and this phrase. Following are few examples.
- (Instead of my ill father I had come.)
C) There is no specific meaning of the third use of this sentence pattern. It generally shows some comparison or may mean appropriate. For example
- (yachin: rent; The room is small so it is expected that the rent will be less appropriately.)
With this we come to the end of this sentence pattern. Almost all the sentence patterns which we have studied in this lesson are easy therefore try and make your own examples for each pattern. These patterns are used frequently while talking by the Japanese people. So it would be better that you also try and use these patterns in your conversation with your friends.
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