The Japanese grammar which we are going to learn in lesson 4 of JLPT N3 is used commonly while talking. There is no such connection between any of these sentence patterns. Till now the patterns which we learnt in the previous lesson in most of them we made use of only nouns. However most of the sentence patterns which we are going to study in this lesson will make use of nouns as well as verbs. So letís begin with the sentence patterns.
1. The sentence pattern "~kurai/ ~gurai/~kuraida/~guraida" which we are going to study now has two different uses and different meanings based upon its use. Letís see its uses separately one by one along with examples. A) In the first way this sentence pattern is used to show the degree or intensity of the occurrence of some event. Here the root verb form and "nai" form of verbs is used before the phrase. While using i-adjectives or na-adjective "i" and "na" remains respectively and the phrase is used after these adjectives. In case you are using a noun it is directly added to this phrase. Letís read some examples which are provided below.
- (tana: shelf; The earthquake had a degree so as to make things fall from the shelf.)
- (The degree of pain in the stomach was so much that it could not be controlled.)
B) The meaning of the second use is "at least" or in other words to show minimum of something. Here mostly only verbs and nouns are used in the sentence before the phrase. Below are some examples related to this use.
- (Even if you were busy, you could have at least called up.)
- (When people meet they should at least greet each other.)
2. The next sentence pattern of Japanese grammar which we are going to learn is "~saichuu ni/ ~saichuuda". This sentence pattern basically means "in the middle" . The "te form" of the verb should always be used before this phrase. In addition if you are using a noun then join the phrase immediately after the noun used. Leís read some examples related to the use of this phrase to clearly understand it.
- (shiai: match; It started raining in the middle of the match.)
- (jiken: incident; chousa: investigation; We are in the middle of the investigation related to that incident.)
3. The sentence pattern "~shidai" is used very frequently by the Japanese people. The meaning of this sentence pattern is "as soon as". In this case the action has not yet taken place. However we are just expressing what will happen or what should happen. In this sentence pattern the phrase should come immediately after a noun or the "masu base" form of the verb. When you read the following examples you understand this pattern more clearly.
- (jyuusho: address; renraku: contact; As soon as your new address is confirmed please contact me.)
- (As soon as you reach, give me a call.)
4. While telling the reason behind some loss which has occurred or something bad that has happened at that time in Japanese grammar the sentence pattern "~seida/ ~seide/ ~seika" is used. In addition this sentence pattern is also used to express some bad results which have taken place. This sentence pattern has a negative feeling to it. Following are examples provided for a better understanding.
- (shippai: mistake; I did this mistake because of him.)
- (The photographs did not come good because of the camera.)
5. The sentence pattern "~tabi/ ~tabi ni" means whenever. Before "~tabi" only verbs and nouns are used. In case of verbs always the dictionary form or root verbs are used. In case of nouns the "no" particle comes between the noun and "tabi/ tabi ni". So in other words the "no" particle joins the noun with "tabi/ tabi ni". Examples of this pattern are as follows.
- (keiken: experience; Whenever a person experiences something new he learns something out of it.)
- (afurete: to get flooded; higai: damage; Whenever there is high rainfall, this river gets flooded and lots of damage takes place.)
6. A sentence pattern which shows that one action follows the other or doing something immediately after doing something else. The sentence pattern which is used in Japanese grammar for this purpose is "~ta totan". This is a very frequently used sentence pattern of Japanese grammar. Here the first action finishes and immediately the second action start taking place. This pattern is different from "~shida" because in "~shidai" the action has not yet taken place. Whereas in "~ta totan" the first action has already taken place. While using "ta totan" always only the "ta form" of the verb is used before "totan". The "ta" basically shows that the "ta" form has to be used. The following examples related to this sentence pattern will clearly show you this difference.
- (I was so tired that I slept as soon as I got into the bed.)
- (The teacher enters the classroom as soon as the first bell rings.)
7. The next sentence pattern which we are going to study is the use of "~te irai". This pattern in one word means "since". Here only the "te form" of the verb is always used. Example of this sentence pattern "~te irai" is.
- (Since the time I am in Japan, my ideas towards Japan have changed a little.)
- (koui: love; Since that thing took place it looks like he holds love for her.)
8. When "~toori ni/ ~doori ni" is used as a sentence pattern it means "same as" or "in the same way". When you use verb before this phrase it has to be either in its root verb form or in the "ta form". When a noun is used before "toori ni" then always the "no" particle comes between these two. Rather the "no" particle joins the noun and "toori ni". On the other hand when nouns is used before "doori ni" at that time the phrase comes immediately after this phrase. In other words "no" particle does not come between them. Letís read the following examples related to this sentence pattern.
- (Please do as it is written in the manual.)
- (Please proceed as indicated by the arrow.)
9. The sentence pattern which we are going to learn now is used to express or tell about some unfavorable result. The sentence pattern is "~tokoro ni/ ~tokoro e/ ~tokoro wo/o". Here you will observe that different particles are used in all three options. Usually "~tokoro ni" is used with time, "~tokoro e" is used with place and "~tokoro wo/o" is used with situation. The dictionary form, ta form or te form plus iru is used before "tokoro ni". When you use i-adjective before "tokoro ni" the "i" adjective stays as it is. Letís see an example of each type.
- (When we were talking about Ms. Kim at that time the concerned person came.)
- (When I was going to the bedroom at that time my friend came.)
- (When I was secretly smoking at that time my sister saw me.)
10. "~hodo/ ~hododa/ ~hodono" is a sentence pattern used in two different ways Japanese grammar. Based on the use its meaning also differs. Both the uses and their meanings are explained in detail below. In addition few examples are also provided for each use. A) The first use shows us the degree or intensity of something. This use is similar to the "A" use of the sentence pattern "~kurai/ ~gurai". The meaning of this could be "as much as" or shows an extent of something. The root verb form or the "nai" form of verbs is used before this phrase. In case of i-adjective, na-adjectives and nouns they remain as it is and the phrase is joined immediately after their use. Mostly this use has some negative shade to its meaning. Following are some examples.
- (I can feel the degree of pain of the parents who have lost their children.)
- (When I heard the voice of my mother after a long time I was so happy that I felt like crying.)
B) The second use of this sentence pattern means "the most". Here either the root verb or a noun comes before the phrase. In addition sometimes at the end of the sentence the "wa/ ga nai" expression is also used. Read the following examples which show you this use.
- (The most enjoying thing is to go for a trip with best friends.)
- ( She is the most intelligent girl I have ever met.)
By this we finish with the fourth lesson of JLPT N3 grammar. Many of the sentence patterns of this lesson are very important from the point of view of the JLPT exam. Especially in the grammar section which is the "dokkai" section has many questions related to these sentence patterns. As told earlier also do study or read all the sentence patterns at least once every day. Once you have finished learning these grammar patterns then letís move ahead to our next lesson.
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