In this lesson we will be learning various new sentence patterns of Japanese grammar which help us to give an excuse in a polite way, to talk about some bad results, To express a fear of something, expression which is used while telling your decision and many others. The sentence patterns are not very difficult to understand. So now let’s start with our study.
|1. This pattern provides us with a phrase which helps us talk about some bad result that we have got. The phrase is “~bakari ni” which is used only to show bad results which are related to me or my feelings. In short it means “this is the only reason because of which the bad result has been received which makes me feel sad”. While using this sentence pattern if a noun or a na-adjective comes before this phrase then always add “de aru” after the noun or the na-adjective. “De aru” always comes between noun and the phrase or na-adjective and phrase. Always remember that this phrase and noun which is used cannot be joined by “no” particle. In case of na-adjectives you can either directly add “bakari ni” to it or add “de aru” and then the phrase. Let’s read a few examples related to this sentence pattern.
- (As I did not have money, I could not continue my studies in college.)
- (arubaito: part time job; As I am not good at Japanese language, I am not getting a part time job.)
2. When you want to give a polite excuse “~monodakara” sentence pattern is used in Japanese grammar. This phrase literally means “therefore”. In this sentence pattern when you use a noun before “monodakara” at that time “na” is added to the noun and then the phrase comes. So in other words “na” joins the noun and the phrase.
- (shuukan: customs; shitsurei: wrong;I don’t know the customs of Japan therefore I may make mistakes.)
- (As I am the only child, I am raised leisurely therefore I have become selfish.)
3. The sentence pattern which we are going to learn now again makes the use of the word “you”. The actual sentence pattern is “~you ni/ ~you na”. This pattern has two different meanings according to its use. Each use along with its specific explanation has been provided below.
A) The first meaning of this sentence pattern is “as it is/ same as”. Here basically we provide or show an example to do something same like it is. So this pattern actually shows or indicates the example based upon which you have to do the other thing. Let’s read the following examples which will help you understand this meaning and use properly.
- (Fill the form as it is written here.)
- (I do not like things which are sweet like cake.)
B) The meaning of the second use of this phrase is “in order to/ so as to”. In this sentence pattern either the dictionary form or the “nai” form of the verb is used before this phrase. Following are the examples of this use.
- (This book is simple so as to students of primary school can also read it.)
- (Take care of yourself in order to not catch cold.)
4. “~Ippouda” phrase is used in a sentence pattern to indicate the tendency of something which is proceeding gradually. The root verb form of verb will be used before “ippouda”. Examples are as below. The kanji used for “ippouda” is . A hint in this sentence pattern is that “ippouda” always comes to the end of a sentence.
- (saikin: recently; tsuushin: communication; pasokon: computer; Recently the tendency of communication by computers in increasing.)
- (Recently I am not using English very frequently, hence I have started forgetting it.)
5. When you are worried and have a fear of something in you at that time the sentence pattern “~osorega aru” is used in Japanese grammar. Basically the phrase “osore” means to be scared therefore the phrase “osorega aru” means “to have fear of something”. The dictionary form of verbs is used before this phrase. In case of nouns “no” particle comes between the phrase and the noun. Some examples of this sentence pattern are provided below.
- (shujyutsu: operation; If the operation in not done immediately, then I fear it will be very late.)
(akuji: deficit; If this type of deficit continues, then there is a fear of this company to close down.)
6. When any rules, schedule etc. is decided at that time to tell this decision the phrase “~koto ni natte iru” sentence pattern is used in Japanese grammar. The phrase “~koto ni natte iru” means “to decide”. Before this phrase either a verb or i-adjective comes. In case of verbs only root verbs or “nai” form is used. In case of i-adjectine “i” is not omitted. It stays as it is and the phrase is added to it. The examples of this phrase which shows its use and meaning are provided below.
- (I have decided to meet a friend on the coming Sunday.)
- (The rule of this hotel is to close the door at 12 o’clock.)
7. The sentence pattern which we are going to learn now is “~koto wa nai”. This phrase literally means “not at all necessary” or in other words “it is not necessary to do”. In the structure of this sentence pattern always the dictionary form of verb comes before the phrase. Following are some examples related to this sentence pattern
- (If it is a bag of trip then there is no need of going and buying it as I will lend it to you.)
- (The result of that inspection is not bad, so there is no need to worry.)
8. When you are doing something and at that time when you realize that there is no other way for this so have to do it in this way only, at that time “~shikanai” is used. In other words this phrase means that there is no 2nd or 3rd way of doing this so have to do it by using this way only. Once again in this form also the root verb or dictionary form of verbs is used before “~shikanai”. The examples are as follows.
- (As the trains have stopped due to the accident, there is no other way than walking.)
- (As I have promised, hence there is no other way but to go.)
9. The sentence pattern “~to iu kotoda” has two different uses in Japanese grammar. Based upon its uses the meaning also differs. Let’s study each use and meaning separately. In addition let’s also read the few examples keenly which have been provided. A) In the first use we have heard something from someone else and we are quoting it as we have heard it. In Japanese the things which we hear from someone else is known as “denbun”. This use generally means “it is said that” or “it is known that”. Below are some examples.
- (It is said that the main reason of this accident is unknown.)
- (Based upon the weather forecast it is said that there will be lots of rain this year.)
B) The meaning of the second use of this phrase is very simple which is “in other words. Following is a conversation which shows you the use of this sentence pattern. - ”Tomorrow I will be a bit too busy.” - ”Ok then, in other words are you not going to come for the party then?”
10. The last sentence pattern of this lesson which we are going to learn is “~wake ga nai/ ~wake wa nai”. This sentence pattern means “it is not possible” or “it is impossible for something to happen like this. Following are examples related to this sentence pattern.
- (As Mr. Chan is a Chinese, it is not possible that he cannot write kanji.)
- (umi: sea; shinsen: fresh; As this place is far from the sea, it is not possible to get fresh fish.)
So here we complete our study of this lesson. Almost all the sentence patterns of this lesson are very easy and can be learnt very fast. Also as these sentence patterns are easy they are fun to learn.
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