This is the first lesson of JLPT level N2 grammar it is advisable that before going further you first revise the complete grammar of level N3. By doing this you will feel more confident and will gain interest in learning the grammar of level N2. You will observe that many of the sentence patterns of this lesson are similar in the meaning to the one’s which we have already studied in the previous level that is N3. Therefore let’s start with the sentence patterns of this lesson now.
|1. In the first sentence pattern we will learn the use and meaning of the phrase “~koso/ ~karakoso”. This sentence pattern is used when you want to stress upon something about which you are talking, feeling etc. Before this phrase either a noun or a verb is used. Some examples of this sentence patterns are as follows.
- (We have to win the match this time.)
- (I could complete this work fast only because of your help.)
2. “~Sae/ ~de sae” is the sentence pattern which we are going to learn now. This sentence pattern of phrase actually means “even, only if, even if” and mostly has a negative shade, meaning or feeling to it. Here the present extreme thing is used to provide as an example. In this sentence pattern a noun comes before the phrase. Another important thing to remember about this sentence pattern is that if “ga” or “wo/ o” particles come after noun they are always omitted and then the phrase is added to the noun. On the other hand any other particle except for “ga” and “wo/ o” which comes after noun should not be omitted. Let’s read the following examples to get a better understanding of this sentence pattern.
- (Even the specialists could not understand this, so it is impossible for us to understand.)
- (He didn’t even consult his parents and decided about his marriage.)
3. The sentence pattern which we are going to learn now has two different uses and meanings. The sentence pattern is “~nado/ ~nanka/ ~nante”. In both the uses a noun comes before this phrase. “~nanka” and “~nante” are used mostly in spoken Japanese. Let’s study its uses separately. A) The first use does not have any exact meaning to it. A simple and general meaning of this phrase when used in this way is “something like this” or “something similar to”. Read the following examples which are provided.
- (Where are you going wearing the necktie and things similar to that?)
- (When you are going to meet someone who is unwell at that time you can carry carnations or something similar to it.)
B) The second use of this sentence pattern also does not have any specific meaning to it. You can generally say that it means “as simple as” or “simple thing like”. This will be clear to you once you read the examples which are provided below.
- (I am busy that’s why a simple thing like watching T.V. is not possible.)
- (It is as simple as skiing. Anyone can learn it immediately.)
4. When you wish to use “~nitsuite” in a more further way at that time the sentence pattern “~ni kannshite/ ~ni kanshite wa/ ~ni kanshitemo/ ~ni kansuru” is used in Japanese grammar. This sentence pattern has the same meaning as “~ni tsuite” which means “related to” or “in relation to”. The kanji of kanshite will be - Again in this sentence pattern also a noun is used before the phrase. Below are some examples of the use of this sentence pattern.
- (keikaku: plan; henkou: change; kentou: examine; jyuubun: sufficient; If it is related to changing the plan then it is very necessary to examine it sufficiently.)
- (If you want to go to a foreign country then only language is not enough, it is better to have the knowledge related to its customs also.)
5. “~Ni kuwaete/ ~ni kuwae” is a sentence pattern which means “in addition to” in English. Before this phrase a noun is used. The kanji of “kuwaete” will be - Following are some examples related to this sentence pattern.
- (In addition to the increase in electricity cost, the costs of gas and others have also increased.)
(taiki osen: air pollution; kaiyou osen: marine pollution; In addition to the continuous increase in the air pollution, marine pollution has also become very serious.)
6. The next sentence pattern which we are going to learn is “~ni kotaete/ ~ni kotae/ ~ni kotaeru/ ~ni kotaeta”. This sentence pattern basically means “in reply, in response to”. A noun comes before this phrase. Following are some examples which will help you understand the meaning of this sentence pattern more clearly.
- (youkyuu: demand; roudou jikan: working hours; tanshuku: contract; In response to company worker’s demand, the working hours have been contracted.)
(seisaku: policy; kitai: expect; In response to the citizen’s voice, everybody is expecting a policy.)
7. The sentence pattern which we are going to study now has only one use but two different meanings depending upon the context of the sentence. The sentence pattern is “~ni sotte/ ~ni soi/ ~ni sou/ ~ni sotta”. The two meaning of this phrase are “according to” or “along with”. This phrase can be written in kanji also which is ~ni - In this sentence pattern also a noun is used before the phrase. The examples of this sentence pattern are given below.
- (houshinn: policy; The new plan will be decided according to policies decided.)
- (jigyou: business; yosan: budget; In Tokyo along with the new business plans the new year budget will be decided.)
8. “~Ni hanshite/ ~ni hanshi/ ~ni hanshi suru/ ~ni hanshita” is a sentence pattern which means “opposite” or “totally”. In this sentence pattern “han” is written as - in kanji. This sentence pattern helps us to express something which has occurred opposite to what was expected or felt. In this sentence pattern before the phrase a noun is used. Below are some examples which have been provided to you for your help.
- (kami: God; ikou: wish, will; shizen: nature; When man goes opposite to God’s will, he destroys the nature.)
- (Yousu: guess; jikken: experiment; The result of the experiment was totally opposite to what was guessed.)
9. In our previous level we had learnt a sentence pattern “~wo/o motoni” which meant “based upon” or “on the basis of”. Here we will learn a new sentence pattern having the same meaning and use which is “~ni motozuite/ ~ni motozuki/ ~ni motozuku/ ~ni motozuita”. “Moto” is written as - in kanji. Some examples of this sentence pattern are given below.
(chousa: survey; shiryou: documents; The report should be written based on the documents of the survey.)
- (His opinion is based on deep experience and hence is understood.)
10. This is the last sentence pattern of this lesson which is “~ni watatte/ ~ni watari/ ~ni wataru/ ~ni watatta” which means “for”, “whole” or “complete”. Similar to the other sentence patterns of this lesson here also a noun comes before this phrase. Read the following examples which will clearly show you the use and meaning of this sentence pattern.
- (As Mr. Chin was unwell he took holiday from school for 2 whole weeks.)
- (Whole of the west Japan was affected by the storm.)
With this we have completed the study of the sentence patterns of the first grammar lesson of JLPT level N2. Almost all the sentence patterns of this lesson are very easy to understand and have very simple uses.
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