The sentence patterns which we are going to learn in this lesson have direct meanings. There is nothing which will confuse you or make things difficult for memorizing. The only thing which you should remember is that even if the sentence patterns are easy on the first reading always read them carefully and with full concentration. Unless and until you follow this practice you may feel the easiest pattern also difficult to understand and memorize. As the sentence patterns of this lesson are not difficult you will not require much time to understand their use and meaning.
1. The first sentence pattern of this lesson which we are going to study is “~ni tsuke/ ~ni tsukete/ ~ni tsukete wa/ ~ni tsukete mo”. This sentence pattern has two different uses and meanings respectively. Let’s study these two separately and carefully. A) The first use of this sentence pattern is very easy. It simply means “every time” or “whenever”. Before the phrase always the dictionary form of the verb is used. Read the following examples related to this use for a better understanding.
- (Whenever I see the family photograph every time I feel like meeting them.)
- (Every time I hear about the war I feel worried.)
B) The meaning of the second use is “let it be this or that” or “in this or that”. In this use “ni tsuke” is used twice in the sentence. Here a verb, noun or an i-adjective can be used before the phrase. Following is the sentence structure of this use when these different grammar elements are used.
Dictionary form of verb + ni tsuke + dictionary form of verb + ni tsuke
i-adjective without removing “i” + ni tsuke + i-adjective without removing “i” + ni tsuke
Noun + ni tsuke + noun + ni tsuke
Let’s now read the examples which are provided below to understand the meaning of this sentence pattern clearly.
- (senpai: senior; katsuyaku: activities; When you see or listen about senior’s activities you become assured.)
- (obaasan: grandmother; choushi: condition; Let it be summer or winter , my grandmother’s body condition is always bad.)
2. “~Ageku/ ~ageku ni” is the sentence pattern used in Japanese grammar which means “finally”. In this sentence pattern the result which is obtained is always negative. In other words this sentence pattern is used when some bad result has been obtained. In this sentence pattern if you use a verb before the phrase then it has to be in its “ta” form. In case you use a noun then first add “no” particle to the noun and then join the phrase to it. Following are some sentences given as examples of this sentence pattern.
- (goudou: robbery; As that man did not have enough money he finally decided to rob the bank.)
- (choujikan: long time; After a long discussion the development plan was finally cancelled.)
3. The next sentence pattern which we will be learning now is “~ijyou/ ~ijyou wa”. “ijyou” is written like by using kanji. This sentence pattern means “because, due to”. It basically is used to give a reason which is very natural or obvious. Here the speaker’s judgment or suggestion is present. Before the phrase verb, i-adjective, na-adjective or a noun can be used. In case you use a noun then “de aru” is first added to the noun and then the phrase is added to it. In a similar way in case of na-adjective also many times “de aru” is joined to the na-adjective and then the phrase is added to it. However this is not a compulsion in case of na-adjective. This sentence pattern is very similar in use as well as meaning to the sentence pattern “~kara niwa” which we have learnt initially. Let’s read some of the examples related to this sentence pattern which have been given below.
- (houritsu: rules; Because I am staying in Japan I have to protect the rules of Japan.)
- (keiyakusho: contract document; kijitsu: fix day; Because it was mentioned in the contract, this work has to be completed till the fixed day.)
4. The sentence pattern “~ue wa” has the same meaning as the above sentence pattern “~ ijyou wa”. “Ue wa” is written like by using kanji. The only difference between the use of these two sentence patterns is that in “~ue wa” only a verb comes before this phrase. A noun, i-adjective or a na-adjective none of these elements of Japanese grammar come before this phrase. On the other hand in the above sentence pattern all these elements were used. The meaning of this sentence pattern is also “because, as”. Below are some examples of this sentence pattern which help you understand this grammar pattern more clearly.
- (bengoshi: lawyer; Because I have decided to become a lawyer however hard it is I have to do it.)
- (Because the plan was cancelled, there was no other way but to dispose the project team.)
5. The next sentence pattern which we are going to study is “~ kotonaku”. This sentence pattern conveys the meaning that “without doing anything, leaving it as it is”. In this sentence pattern the dictionary form of the very is only used before the phrase. As this sentence pattern is very easy, understanding the following given examples will not at all be difficult.
- (The robot works for 24 hours without stopping.)
- (That child is engrossed in the computer game without getting fed up.)
6. The sentence pattern which we are going to get introduced to now is “~sai/ ~sai wa/ ~sai ni”. The word “sai” is written as by using kanji. This sentence pattern literally means “at the time” or “at that time”. When a verb is used before this phrase it can either be in its dictionary form or in its “ta” form. When a noun is used first the “no” particle should be joined to the noun and then the phrase should be added to it. Let’s read few examples related to this sentence pattern which has been provided below.
- (When the card is lost at that time you should immediately inform the company.)
- (At the time of applying for the passport you should carry all the important things.)
7. The last sentence pattern of this lesson which we are going to learn is “~tsutsu/ ~tsutsu mo” This sentence pattern has two different uses and meanings. These two uses are very easy and can be understood very quickly. Let’s study these from the explanation which has been given below along with the respective examples.
A) The meaning of the first use is “simultaneously” or in other words at the “same time”. Tjis meaning is same as the sentence pattern “nagara” which we have already studied in the previous level. In this use the masu base form or in other words the stem form of the verb comes before the phrase. An important thing to remember is that this form of “~tsutsu” is never used in conversation. In addition “~tsutsu mo” is never used when this meaning is to be conveyed by using this sentence pattern, only “~tsutsu” is used. Following are few examples of this use.
- (By thinking about the money in the purse do the shopping.)
- (By thinking about my mother’s happy face, I am writing a letter.)
B) In the second use this sentence pattern shows the speaker’s disappointment. In addition the speaker can confess about something by using this sentence pattern. A hint about this sentence pattern is that the “to” particle comes before the verb which is joined to the phrase. In other words the structure is: “to” oarticle + the masu base of verb + tsutsu/ tsutsmo. Let’s read the following examples which have been provided to us for understanding this use clearly.
- (I knew that it is bad but still I ended up speaking lies.)
- (I had thought of studying from today, but still I ended up watching television.)
With this we come to an end of this lesson. Almost all the sentence patterns of this lesson are very easy to understand. The only thing you require is practice. Therefore it is very important for you to make as many sentences of you own as possible to get thorough with these sentence patterns.
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