The 11th lesson of JLPT N2 level grammar will introduce us to a whole new set of sentence patterns of Japanese grammar. The sentence patterns of this lesson are not very interesting but are easy to understand. So let’s start our study of the sentence pattern.
|1. The first sentence pattern of this lesson which we are going to study “~to itte mo”. This sentence pattern actually means “even if it is said it is not like”. In addition is shows a limit of something. In this sentence pattern before the phrase any element of Japanese grammar can be used. In other words a verb, i-adjective, na-adjective or noun comes before the phrase. Some examples of this sentence pattern are given below.
- (Even if it is said that I have eaten breakfast, it consists of only light food like bread and coffee.)
- (Even if I like Japanese food it is limited to tempura and sushi only.)
2. “~Dokoro ka” is the sentence pattern which means “just opposite”. In other words we can say that this sentence pattern states “leave away this but that also”. This meaning will be clearer to you when you read the examples which are provided below.
- (Leave away savings but he is in debt.)
- (Leave English but he can also speak Arabian as well as German languages.)
3. The sentence pattern which we are going to learn now is “~to shitara/ ~to sureba”. This sentence pattern expresses the meaning that “the situation is not present just now but if it is assumed or supposed”. In this sentence pattern also before the phrase a na-adjective, i-adjective, verb or noun can come. Following are some examples which show you the use and meaning of this sentence pattern.
- (If suppose I want to study in a foreign country then I would go to Japan.)
- (If after calling up he does not receive the call then supposedly he has gone out.)
4. A sentence pattern which has a very simple and straight forward meaning is “~nai koto niwa”. This sentence pattern literally means “unless”. In this sentence pattern usually a negative point comes. In other words it has a negative meaning or feeling to it. When a verb is used before this phrase it has to be in its “nai” form and then “koto niwa” is added to it. In case of i-adjectives just remove “i” and replace it by “ku” and then add “nai koto niwa” to it. In case of na-adjectives remove “na” and replace it by “de” and then add the complete phrase to it. Similarly in case og=f nouns also add “de” to the noun first and then add “nai koto niwa” to it. Let’s read the following examples which have been provided to understand the use of the forms of the Japanese grammar properly.
- (Unless the room is more spacious we cannot use it as a classroom.)
- (tantousha: co-coordinator; Unless you are a coordinator, you will not understand the minute details.)
5. “~Nagara” is the next sentence pattern which we are going to learn. Here the meaning of “nagara” is very different from what we had learnt in the previous levels. In this sentence pattern “nagara” means “though, inspite of, however”. In this sentence pattern when a verb comes before the phrase it should either be in its “masu base” form or in its “nai” form. When i-adjective comes before the phrase “i” stays as it is and “nagara” is added to it. In case of na-adjectives “na” is removed and “nagara” is added to it. When a noun is used “nagara” is directly added to the noun. Read the following examples to understand the meaning of this sentence pattern clearly.
- (Though I was thinking of saying thanks, I did not get an opportunity to say so.)
- (Though I do not understand Japanese language, I could enjoy the drama which was showing on the television.)
6. The sentence pattern which we will study now is used while talking about someone else and not about own self. This sentence pattern is “~ni shite wa”. When we use this sentence pattern we evaluate something and also comment on something. Here a noun, i-adjective, na-adjective or a verb is used before the phrase. Let’s read the sentence which are provided below as examples of this sentence pattern.
- (My elder brother was in America for 20 years but his English language is not good.)
- (He is a singer but his song is not that good.)
7. “~ni kakawarazu/ ~ni wa kakawarinaku/ ~ni kakawarinaku” is a sentence pattern used in Japanese grammar to show that the two actions or events about which the sentence is talking has no connection with each other. In other words this sentence pattern means “irrespective of”. In this sentence pattern if you use a noun before the phrase then it is directly joined with the noun. In case of verbs you have to be very careful. See the structure of the sentence which has been given below: “masu base” of verb + “nai” form of verb + ni kakawarazu/ kakawarinaku Both the forms are of the same verb which you have used. Read the examples which are provided below to understand this structure clearly.
- (kanarazu: without fail; Whether you will participate or not, you have to reply without fail.)
- (Irrespective of knowing a foreign language, this company selects those people who have foreign contacts.)
8. The sentence pattern which we will see now sounds very similar to the above sentence pattern but is very different in use and meaning. The sentence pattern is “~ni mo kakawarazu” which shows the speaker’s dissatisfaction regarding something. Here the speaker is talking about a result which is obtained is totally different from what was expected. In short the meaning will be “inspite of”. Some examples which clearly show the meaning of this sentence pattern are given below.
- (Inspite of the questions being easy I missed because of my carelessness.)
- (Inspite of the operations of the computer being so complicated, it’s sale is very good.)
9. This sentence pattern is very easy to understand and hence is very interesting to learn. The sentence pattern is “~nuki de/ ~nuki dewa/ ~nukini/ ~nuki niwa/ ~nuki no/ ~wo nukinishite/ ~wo nukini shitewa/ ~wa nukini shite”. This sentence pattern simply means “without”. Before this phrase always a noun is used. Some examples related to this sentence pattern are given below.
- (There are many salary man who go to office without eating breakfast.)
- (Without Asia the world economy cannot be narrated.)
10. The last sentence pattern of this lesson which we will get introduced to is “nominarazu”. This sentence pattern literally means “not only but also”. In this sentence pattern also before “nominarazu” a noun, verb, na-adjective or i-adjective can be used. Let’s read the following examples related to this sentence pattern which shows us its use and meaning clearly.
- (seinou: efficiency; Not only the efficiency of this computer is excellent, but its operations are also easy.)
- (kyoushi: teacher; Not only have the students but the teachers also participated in the sports competitions.) By this we have completed this lesson. All the sentence patterns are very simple and quick to learn. It is very important that you read all these sentence patterns every day. Even if they are easy you should read them daily because by following this practice you will be confident about their use and meaning. This in return will help you answer the questions of the JLPT exams without any difficulty and confusion.
|© Copyright Reserved with sitemap | Learn Japanese Free | Our Partners|