The Japanese grammar which we are going to study in this lesson is very important for the JLPT exam. Even if they are not used very frequently but having knowledge about it and having information about its use and meaning is very essential. You need to read these sentence patterns at least twice at the very first time to understand their use and meaning properly. Let’s start with reading these grammar patterns one after the other.
|1. “~Ni shiro/ ~ni seyo/ ~ni mo seyo/ ~ni shite mo” is first sentence pattern of this lesson which we are going to study. This sentence pattern basically has two different uses and meanings. Let’s study them separately by reading the explanation which has been given below.
A) The first use of this sentence pattern is “however, but”. In both the uses before the phrase a noun, i-adjective, na-adjective or a verb can be used. Let’s read some examples which have been given below to understand the meaning of this use more clearly.
- (However busy you might be, but it is not good to not eat your meal.)
- (However strong your body must be but if you do so much work then you will fall ill.)
) The meaning of the second use is “whether…but”. This use and meaning is simpler and easier than the first use. In this use the phrase of the sentence pattern which is used comes twice in the sentence construction. Read the following examples to understand this sentence construction.
- (Whether you drink beer or Japanese wine, but after drinking you cannot drive.)
- (Whether you like her or not, but still she is known as a good singer by everyone.)
2. The next sentence pattern which we are going to learn now is “~hanmen”. One important thing to remember is that “hanmen” is written in two different ways by using different kanjis. These two different kanjis are and . Both these are correct and can be used in the sentence. In addition both these “hanmen” have the same meaning which means “on one hand it is this and on the other hand it is like this”. In short we can also say that this sentence pattern is used to tell about the quality of someone or something. Following are few examples of this sentence pattern which will help you to understand the meaning properly.
- (The medicine is usually effective but on the other hand has its own side effects.)
- (That movie is romantic but on the other hand makes us think a lot.)
3. When we are talking about something which is almost impossible to do or happen at that time to show this situation the sentence pattern “~mononara” is used. In other words this sentence pattern shows a situation where there is a very low percentage of something to happen or do. The possibility is very less. In this sentence pattern the root verb or in other words the dictionary form of the verb comes before the phrase. The examples related to this sentence pattern will help you understand this better.
- (If there is a possibility of my father’s disease to cure, then I am ready to buy the costliest medicines also.)
- (If it is possible to this work by you alone then do it and see.)
4. The sentence pattern “~mono no” has the same meaning as the sentence pattern “~noni” which we have learnt in the previous level of Japanese grammar. “~mono mo” simply means “inspite of” or “even if”. This sentence pattern basically expresses situations where things are not happening in the way you have thought they will take place. In this sentence pattern either a verb or a na-adjective or an i-adjective is used before the phrase. Following are some examples related to this sentence pattern.
- (Inspite of having the driving license I cannot buy a car.)
- (Inspite of the payment being so less the job is worth doing.)
5. The next sentence pattern which we are going to study is used to talk about two opposite things. The sentence pattern which is used is “~warini/ ~warini wa”. Before the phrase either of the elements of Japanese grammar which are noun, i-adjective, verb or na-adjective is used. Let’s read the following examples to understand the use and meaning of this sentence pattern properly.
- (As compared to the price the food of this restaurant is very tasty.)
- (This product is expensive but the quality is not good.)
6. The sentence pattern which we are going to study now is “~you dewa nai ka/ ~u dewa nai ka/ ~you jyanai ka/ ~u jyanai ka”. In this sentence pattern before “dewa nai ka” or “jya nai ka” always the volitional form of the verb is used. The meaning of this sentence pattern is very simple which is “let’s do”. In other words it conveys the meaning “shimashou” or “shimasenn ka” in Japanese. Some sentences related to this grammar pattern are provided below as examples.
- (Let’s spread the awareness of nature conservation together.)
- (Let’s seriously think on the problem of male female discrimination.)
7. “~Uru/ ~enai” has the same use and in fact comes under the same sentence pattern. “Uru” and “enai” are written as and respectively. This sentence pattern basically means “obtain, gain, can do”. The actual meaning which is to be considered completely depends on the context of the sentence. In other words it helps to show the ability of doing or not doing something. The masu base form of the verb always is used before the phrase. Below given are some examples of this sentence pattern.
- (I thought as much as possible but was not able to reach the solution of the problem.)
- (If possible I want to start an independent business.)
8. When there is a possibility of something to result in a bad happening or in a negative result at that time the sentence pattern “~kane nai” is used in Japanese grammar. Before “kane nai” always the stem form or in other words the masu base form of the verb is used. Let’s read the examples which are given below related to this sentence pattern.
- (If you go with such a speed, there is a possibility of an accident to take place.)
- (If you only play, then there is a possibility that you will fail in exams.)
9. This next sentence pattern which we will see now is “~kotoda”. This sentence pattern is used when you are warning someone or are telling someone to be cautious about something. In other words you advice someone to do something in a particular way. In this sentence pattern before “kotoda” either the dictionary form of verb or the “nai” form of the verb is used. Read the following examples which are based on this sentence pattern.
- (When you enter the college, it is better you study by putting all your efforts.)
- (If you do not understand the meaning of a word, it is better you always search in the dictionary first.)
The above sentence pattern was the last to be learnt in this lesson. So in other words we have the study of sentence patterns of this lesson. Do make your own sentences and practice these sentence patterns. In addition while reading them concentrate on your reading completely.
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