The sentence patterns which we are going to study in this lesson are not very interesting but are very important to learn from the JLPT exam point of view. You might observe that the meaning of many sentence patterns are similar to the one’s which we have already studied. However the use of each one is different. In addition the situation, the degree of the effect of the grammar pattern on the sentence, the feelings associated with it and many other such factors affects the selection of which sentence pattern should be used in your conversation. Let’s quickly start with our study of the Japanese grammar of this lesson.
1. The very first sentence pattern which we are going to learn is “~zaru wo enai”. The word “enai” is written like by using Kanji. Japanese meaning of this sentence pattern is “~nakereba narimasen”. Both these phrases mean the same which is “you need to, you should not” or “you have to”. In other words it shows some kind of compulsion. Before “zaru wo enai” the masu base form of the verb is used. An exception to this sentence pattern is in case of the verb “suru”. When suru is joined to this phrase at that time “sezaru wo enai” is used. Let’s see some examples which have used this sentence pattern.
- (As this rule has been decided by everyone, you should follow it.)
- (As it is raining heavily, the sports meeting should be cancelled.)
2. The second sentence pattern which we will be studying now is used frequently in conversations by the Japanese people. The sentence pattern is “~shidaida/ ~shidaide/ ~shidai dewa” which has two different meanings and uses. The word “shidai” is written with the help of kanji. Let’s study them individually by reading the explanation which has been provided below. A) In the first use this sentence pattern is used for giving details about something or while giving reason. Here before the phrase a verb, i-adjective or
na-adjective is used. Following are few examples which help us to understand this use.
- (This time by the invitation of Japanese government I have come to Japan as a friendship ambassador.)
- (As I do not know English, I cannot do this work.)
B) The second use of this sentence pattern means “According to, as per, depending upon”. In this use before the phrase a noun comes. Let’s read the examples which are provided below to understand this use clearly.
- (There are many people who say that this world is depended on money.)
- (Depending on your mood you can either be happy or sad.)
3. The sentence pattern “~kkonai” is mostly used in spoken Japanese or in other words in conversations. This sentence pattern basically means “never”. When this sentence pattern is used it stresses the word “never”. The “masu base” form of the verb is used before “kkonai” in the sentence structure. Following is an example of this sentence pattern.
- (Even if I like banana very much, it is never possible for me to eat 20 at a time.)
4. “~To iu monoda” is a sentence pattern which is used in Japanese grammar to express two different things. It is used to express the feeling a person gets from his/ her heart. The second thing that is expressed are the things which are generally said by many people. Read the examples which have been provided below to understand this sentence pattern better.
- (Finally his product was recognized. The efforts he did for so many years were accepted.)
- (It is generally said that young people who buy expensive cars are extravagant.)
5. The next sentence pattern which we are going to study has a partial negative feeling or shade to it. “~To iu mono dewa nai/ ~to iu mono demo nai” is the sentence pattern which means “it is not that”. Before this phrase a noun, i-adjective, na-adjective or a verb is used. To understand the meaning of this sentence pattern more clearly let’s read the examples which are given below.
- (It is not that you cannot change your own nature.)
- (It is not that only if there is money you can live happily.)
6. The sentence pattern “~nai koto wa nai/ ~nai koto mo nai” has a similar meaning to the above “~ to iu mono dewa nai” pattern. The only difference is that in the above sentence pattern the degree of negative feeling is partial where as in this sentence pattern always the thinking done is negative. When a verb is used befoe “noto wa nai/ koto mo nai” it is always in its “nai” form. In case of na-adjective remove “na” and replace it by adding “de” to it and then add the complete phrase to it. When an i-adjective comes before the phrase always the “i” is removed and is replaced by”ku”. Finally in case of a noun “de” is added to noun and then the phrase comes. Read the following examples related to this sentence pattern.
- (It is not that this shoe is not big but it is comfortable.)
- (It is not that this sweater is not goody but it is looking good on you.)
7. The sentence pattern which we are going to learn now is “~ nai dewa irarenai/ ~zuni wa irarenai”. This sentence pattern is used when you want to say that I did not want to do it but, I could not help and it naturally happened. Read the examples which have been given to understand the meaning of this sentence pattern better.
- (The last scene of this movie was so touching, that I could not help myself and tears came into my eyes naturally.)
- (When I saw children playing on a road where there were lots of cars, I could not stop myself from telling them to be cautious.)
8. The next sentence pattern which we are going to study is “~ni kagiru/ ~ni kagiri/ ~ni kagitte”. The word “kagi” is wriiten as by using kanji. This sentence pattern has three different uses and meanings. However all the three meanings show a limit in different ways. Let’s see these three uses and meanings individually along with examples to make the concept more clear to us. A) In the first use any of the three phrases of the sentence pattern can be used. Before the phrase always a noun is used. The meaning of this use is “only”. Following are some examples of this use.
- (I will receive only 50 people.)
- (Only for today there is a 20% discount.)
B) In the second use only the phrase “~ni kagitte” is used. This use means “specially”. It shows that one special thing, place, event, person etc. In this use also before ”ni kagitte” a noun is used. Read the examples which are given below.
- (As far as this person is concerned, he will not cheat.)
- (Specially on the day on which I do not carry an umbrella it rains.)
C) In the third use of this sentence pattern only the phrase “~ni kagiru” is used. Before “ni kagiru” either the dictionary form or the “nai” form of the verb comes. In case a noun is used then it is directly joined to “kagiru”. This use basically means “the best thing”. See the examples which have been given below.
- (When you have cold the best thing to do is to warm the room and sleep.)
- (The best thing is not to go to a place where there is danger.)
This is the end of our lesson 13 of JLPT N2 grammar. The sentence patterns of this lesson are not very complicated so as to not understand them quickly. Read them carefully and you will be able to memorize them in very less time. Practice these sentence patterns and proceed to the next lesson.
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