In the third lesson of Japanese grammar of JLPT N2 level we will get introduced to some simple sentence patterns. Most of the sentence patterns which we will learn in this lesson are used very frequently by the Japanese people in their daily conversations. As these sentence patterns are easy to understand they increase our level of interest in learning Japanese.
|1. “~kagiri/ ~kagiri wa/ ~kagiri dewa/ ~naikagiri/ ~naikagiri wa” sentence pattern has four different uses and meanings. These four meanings are very similar to each other hence you have to be very careful while using this sentence pattern. Following is the detailed explanation of all the four uses and meanings of this sentence pattern.
A) The meaning of the first use of this sentence pattern is “as long as”. In the first use before the phrase the root verb or dictionary form of the verb comes. In case of i-adjectives and na-adjectives the “i” and “na” remains as it is respectively and then the phrase is added to it. If you want to use a noun then in that case add “de aru” to the noun and then join the phrase to it. Read the following examples to understand this use.
- (As long as I am in Japan Mr. Tan is expected to contact me.)
- (As long as you are a student, it’s natural that you study.)
B) In the second use this sentence pattern almost every time “~kagiri dewa” is only used. This use shows the range of something. Here either the dictionary form or the “ta” form of verb is only used before the phrase. The following examples will help you understand its use and meaning more clearly.
- (As long as I know, this book has been sold the most in this year.)
- (As long as he was talking on the phone, he was not that angry.)
C) When you wish to show the limit of something or someone at that time “~kagiri” is used. In the sentence construction before this phrase only the dictionary form of verb is used. In case you want to use a noun before this phrase the “no” particle joins the noun to the phrase. Few examples of this use and meaning are as follows.
- (As long as tome permits, we will continue the discussion.)
- (As long as you have strength continue with the work.)
D) The last use of this phrase consider only the use of “~nai kagiri/ ~ nai kagiri wa” in its sentence. Here the meaning of the phrase is “unless”. When you want to use a verb before this phrase it should always be in its “nai” form. In case of i-adjectives remove “i” and add “ku” to it and then join the phrase to it. In case of na-adjectives remove “na” and replace it by “de” and then add the phrase. For nouns just add “de” to the noun and then add the phrase to it. Let’s read the following examples to understand this use more clearly.
- (Unless the fish is fresh it cannot be used in making sashimi.)
- (Unless he is very ill, he does not take holiday from office.)
2. The sentence pattern which we will study now is “~ka to omou to/ ~ka to omottara”. This sentence pattern is written as by using kanji. This sentence pattern basically means “no sooner than” or “as soon as”. In this sentence the first thing gets over and immediately the second thing starts. Before this phrase always the “ta” form of the verb is used. Read the examples which have been provided below to study this sentence pattern better.
- (As soon as Mr. Lee says sayonara he leaves the class and goes.)
- (As soon as the sky became dark it started raining very heavily.)
3. This pattern sounds a bit similar to the above sentence pattern. However there is a minute but very important difference between the uses of these two sentence patterns. “~ka ~ naika no uchi ni” is a sentence pattern which shows the approximate time when a particular thing took place. In this sentence pattern before the first thing gets over the second thing or action takes place. In other words we are not sure whether the first thing or event has completed or not. However irrespective of this the second thing or action takes place. The structure of the sentence where this pattern is used will be:
Dictionary form/ “ta” form of verb + ka + nai from of verb + ka no uchini.
Following are few examples which show you the use and meaning of this sentence pattern.
- (He who is a heavy smoker, lights the second cigarette before the first cigarette gets over.)
- (The teacher enters the classroom before the bell rings.)
4. The sentence pattern “~kara iu to/ ~kara ieba/ ~kara itte” means “if you see from this point of view”. This sentence pattern helps someone express his/ her opinions or view points. In this sentence pattern you have to be very careful about the meaning and the words which are present in the phrase. In the phrase the word “iu” which means “to say” is used. On the other hand the meaning is “if you see”. Hence even if in the phrase we have used “iu” in reality it is used to say “if you see”. Here in this sentence pattern a noun is always used before the phrase. Let’s read the examples which have been provided below to remember the use and meaning of this sentence pattern properly.
- (If you see it from the point of view of quality this is the best product but is expensive.)
- (If you see it from the point of view of ability there is no doubt that she will win a prize.)
As in this lesson the first sentence pattern has many uses hence we have reduced the number of sentence patterns to be introduced. All the above sentence patterns are very simple to understand and memorize. Therefore learn them thoroughly and then proceed to the next lesson.
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