This lesson will introduce us to a new set of sentence patterns which are important from the point of view of JLPT exams. Japanese grammar is huge but it is interesting enough to hold you back. Some of the sentence patterns which we are going to study now are very simple and easily understandable. But this does not mean that the others are very difficult. You might have to pay a little more attention and will need to practice them more. Therefore let’s now start learning these sentence patterns one at a time.
1. The first sentence pattern of this lesson which we are going to study is “~kara to itte”. This sentence pattern simply means “just because…it is not necessary”. Before this phrase either a verb, i-adjective, na-adjective or a noun can be used. Most of the times in the sentence after the phrase a negative expression comes. Let’s read the following examples related to this sentence pattern.
- (Just because there was failure once or twice there is no necessity to immediately resign.)
- (Just because it is convenient it is not necessary to depend on the machinery.)
2. In the last lesson we had seen a sentence pattern “~kara iu to/ ~kara ieba”. Now we will learn a sentence pattern a bit similar which is “~kara miru to/ ~kara mireba/ ~kara mite/ ~kara miteme”. Here even if the phrase says “miru” the sentence pattern means “If you think from the point of view of”. Therefore it is very important for you to remember the meaning of both these sentence patterns thoroughly so that you can use them appropriately. In this sentence pattern always a noun is used before the phrase. Let’s read the following examples to understand this pattern clearly.
- (hatsugen: declaration; If you think from the point of view of yesterday’s declaration, he is against this bill.)
- (From whichever point of view you think, this person is a gentleman.)
3. The sentence pattern which we are going to learn now is “~kiri/ ~kirida”. This sentence pattern has two different uses and meanings accordingly. Let’s study these uses separately and understand their meaning correctly. A) In the first use of this sentence pattern either a noun or a verb comes before the phrase. In case of verbs either the dictionary form or the “ta” form of the verb is used. The meaning of this use is “only”. This use mostly shows or indicates dissatisfaction. Few examples are as follows
- (I drank only coffee today in the morning and did not eat anything.)
- (dokuritsu: independent; Since children have become independent, only both of us live together.)
B) In the second type this sentence pattern is used to show conditions which are continuing in the same way as they were earlier. Here before the phrase only the “ta” form of the verb is used. Read the following examples which give you a better idea of the use and meaning of this phrase.
- (The elder people who just sleep have increased.)
- (Since he has gone to America he is there only.)
4. “~Kuseni” is a sentence pattern whose nuance is always of criticism. In other words this sentence pattern shows the feeling of dissatisfaction and criticism. This sentence pattern is not used in formal conversations or in other words in formal language. A verb, adjective or noun can be used before this phrase. Following are some examples of this sentence pattern.
- (My father is not good at Karaoke but still he likes it very much.)
- (Even if he does not understand anything still he always gives an explanation.)
5. A sentence pattern used to give reasons in Japanese grammar is “~koto kara”. This sentence pattern basically means “as, because, since”. In this kind of a sentence the reason which is stated forms the base for saying this particular sentence. When a noun or a na-adjective comes before this phrase always “de aru” is first joined to them and then the phrase is added. Apart from this a verb or an i-adjective can also be used before the phrase. Read the following examples related to this sentence pattern.
- (As the road is wet, it is understood that it rained last night.)
- (As there is a white part around the eye of this bird, it is called Mejiro.)
6. When the feelings of the one who is talking are emphasized at that time the sentence pattern “~kotoni/ ~kotoni wa” is used. Before this phrase if a verb is used then it has to be in its “ta” form. While using na-adjective or i-adjective the “na” and “i” are not removed. Instead they stay as it is and the phrase is added to it. An important thing to remember about this sentence pattern is that a noun is never used before this phrase. Read the examples which have been provided below.
- (To my surprise my grandfather and my fiancé’s grandfather are friends from primary school.)
- (The fire was on and luckily it was closed quickly.)
7. Another sentence pattern which is used to express one’s view point is “~jyou wa/ ~jyou mo/ ~jyou no”. In other words this sentence pattern means “When you think from the point of view”. The kanji of “jyou” which will be used here is . In this sentence pattern a noun comes before the phrase. Let’s read the following examples.
- (In Kyoto from the point of view of history there are many temples.)
- (From the point of view of health, stop going to the company.)
8. The sentence pattern which we will learn now is “~tasue/ ~tasueni/ ~tasueno/ ~nosue/ ~nosueni”. This sentence pattern basically states that “after doing a thing for a long time then finally it happened”. The kanji of “sue” which we will use here is . Before this phrase either the “ta” form of the verb is used or in case of a noun, “no” particle is first added to it and then the phrase is added. To understand this sentence pattern and its meaning properly read the examples which are provided below.
- (After thinking for a long time, finally I decided to resign from the company.)
- (After a long discussion, finally the system of entrance exam was reformed.)
9. The last sentence pattern of this lesson is “~ta tokoro” which shows the results which will be seen after doing the current thing. Another similar sentence pattern which we have already studied is “~tara”. In “~ta tokoro” “ta” stands for the “ta” form of the verb. Hence in other words it means that before “tokor” always the “ta” form of the verb is used. Read the following examples which show you the use of this sentence pattern.
- (When I used and saw the new word processor, it was very easy to use.)
- (When the computer stopped working, I was caught in a difficult situation, at that time Mr. Yamada helped me out.)
By studying all the above 9 sentence patterns we have come to an end of this lesson. The sentence patterns are very important from the JLPT exam point of view. Therefore even if they take a little more time to understand and memorize you should get a command on them.