The Japanese grammar which we are going to study in this lesson requires more attention and hard work. As most of these sentence patterns are not used that frequently in conversations we cannot practice them as much it is needed. However from JLPT exam point of view they are important because there are questions which do come in the exam based upon these sentence patterns. So study this lesson with sincerity and full concentration.
1. The first sentence pattern which we are going to study is “~tsuide ni”. This sentence pattern basically shows us that “while doing a certain thing, taking that as a chance or opportunity did the other thing”. While using this sentence pattern either the dictionary form or the “ta” form of the verb comes before this phrase. In case of nouns, first add “no” particle to the noun and then add the phrase to it. Read the following examples which will give you a better idea of the use and meaning of this sentence pattern.
- (While going to the bank, can you post this letter?)
- (tenjikai: exhibition; While going to the departmental store for shopping, on the way I went and saw the exhibition of Kimonos.)
2. The sentence pattern which we are going to learn now is “~to iu to/ ~to ieba”. This sentence pattern has two different uses and meanings. However the two meanings are very similar to each other but carefully understand the minute difference which it has and then use it accordingly. The explanation of the uses has been provided individually below along with the appropriate examples.
A) One of the situations where this sentence patterns is when you are talking about something and suddenly you remember something else which is related or associated with actual thing you were talking about. In this use before the phrase a noun is used. Read the examples which are given below.
- (When we talk about sports the first thing which we think of is Olympics.)
- (kotengeinou: classical entertainment; When we talk about classical entertainment, it is always kanuki.)
B) The second use of this sentence pattern means “it reminds me of”. Here taking something as an example we talk about something else related to it. A verb, i-adjective, na-adjective or a noun anything can be used before the phrase. Following are few examples related to this sentence pattern.
- (Italy reminds me of the unfavorable event where I had dropped my passport.)
- (The tasteless water reminds me of the recent water purifier which was supplied.)
3. “~To ittara” is a sentence pattern which shows our expectations, surprise, feelings etc. It is used in situations where something cannot be expressed in words. Before this phrase a noun is used. Read the following examples for a better understanding.
- (It is awful to talk about my son’s dirty room.)
- (We do not have words to express the beauty of that scenery.)
4. The sentence pattern to which we will be introduced now is “~ba ~hodo”. This sentence pattern literally means “the more you do something the more…”. Here “ba” stands for the “ba” form of the verb and i-adjective. In case of na-adjective and nouns instead of “ba” “nara” is used. The verb, i-adjective, na-adjective or noun which you have used along with “ba”, the same have to be used after “ba” and before “hodo”. Following are the sentence structure which will be followed based upon the grammar element which you have used.
“ba” form of verb + dictionary form of verb + hodo
“ba” form of i-adjective + i-adjective having “i” at the end + hodo
nara/ de areba” of na-adjective + na-adjective having “na” or “de aru” at the end + hodo “nara/ de areba” of noun + noun having “de aru” at the end + hodo Few examples related to this sentence pattern are as follows which will help you understand this grammar more clearly.
- (The more you practice the more you will become an expert in it.)
- (kyuuryou: salary; The higher the salary the better it is!)
5. “~Hodo” is a sentence pattern which we will be studying now. This sentence pattern does not have an exact meaning to it. The meaning depends on the context of the sentence. This sentence pattern basically shows us that if there is a change in the degree on one side then simultaneously on the other side also there is a change in the degree. This explanation will be clear when you read the following examples clearly. In this sentence pattern when you make use of a verb before the phrase it always has to be in its dictionary form. In case of i-adjective, na-adjectives and nouns they remain as it is and come before the phrase.
- (yuuri: advantageous; If you are a sumo then the more fat you are the more advantageous it is.)
- (The higher the price, it is not necessary that the goods are better.)
6. The sentence pattern “~kano youda/ ~kano youna/ ~kano youni” means “as if”. In other words this sentence pattern is used when we are just assuming about something which in reality is different. Before this phrase noun, verb, i-adjective or na-adjective can be used. Following are few examples of this sentence pattern.
- (hageshii: severe; There is severe rainfall and wind as if a cyclone will come.)
- (He made a face as if he does not know anything regarding that thing.)
7. “~Tsutsu aru” is a sentence pattern used in Japanese grammar which shows a gradual change. In other words this sentence pattern helps us to talk about some gradual change in a thing, event etc. In this sentence pattern before the phrase always the “masu base” form or in other words the “stem form” of the verb comes before the phrase. This sentence pattern is mainly used in written Japanese. Read the examples below for a better understanding.
- (Time will be required to solve this problem gradually.)
- (jiken: event; shinsou: truth; The truth of this event is becoming clear gradually.)
8. The next sentence pattern which we are going to study is “~te tamaranai/ ~te shiyou ga nai”. This sentence pattern means “unbearable, can’t help it”. In this sentence pattern “te” stands for the “te” form of the verb, i-adjective and na-adjective. Hence we can say that before “tamaranai” or “shiyou ga nai” either the “te” form of verb or na-adjective or i-adjective will come. Let’s read the following examples which have been provided.
- (I had an unbearable head ache, hence went to the nearby hospital.)
- (After opening the window, the noise of the train is unbearable.)
9. A sentence pattern similar to the above sentence pattern is “~te naranai”. The meaning of this sentence pattern is same as the above one. The only difference is that this sentence pattern is used in a more humble or soft language. This sentence pattern describes us a situation where the feeling about a certain thin naturally becomes strong. In this sentence pattern also before the phrase either the “te” form of the verb, i-adjective or na-adjective is used. Below are some examples related to this sentence pattern.
- (I could not help but was thinking about my parents.)
i - (My happiness was unbearable when I met my friend from my country after a long time.)
10. When you have a feeling that a particular thing will surely happen in this way at that time express this thought or feeling the sentence pattern “~ni kimatte iru” is used. We can also say that the meaning of this sentence pattern is “it is natural that this will happen” or “it is likely to”. A verb, noun, na-adjective or i-adjective anyone can be used before this phrase. Let’s read few examples related to this sentence pattern which has been given below to understand the use and meaning more accurately.
- (As we have not at all practiced; it is likely that we will lose the match this time.)
- (If you think from the point of view of ability, it is likely that the ‘A’ team will win.)
By this we come to the end of this lesson. As many of the sentence patterns of this lesson do not have a particular meaning, it is very important for you to clearly understand its use. In addition you should also understand the way to find out the exact meaning which the sentence pattern is conveying based upon the context of the sentence. Therefore it is advised that you study all these sentence patterns very carefully and make as many examples as possible when you are practicing them so that you are thorough with them.