After properly understanding the sentence patterns of lesson 1, then only start studying the grammar of this lesson. In this lesson you will observe that there are few sentence patterns which almost have the same meaning and use. So letís start with the learning of the sentence patterns.
1. In this sentence pattern we will see the phrase which is used to show the comparison between various things. "~ni kurabete/ ~ni kurabe" which means in comparison with or as compared to is the phrase used in such sentences. Basically "kuraberu" is the verb whose different forms are used here along with "ni" particle. The meaning of "kuraberu" is to compare. Noun should always come before this phrase. Below are few examples which show you the use of this sentence pattern
- (Compared to my elder brother, my younger studies better.)
- (Compared to last year, this yearís rainfall is good.)
2. "~ni shitagatte/ ~ni shitagai" is the sentence pattern to show spontaneous or natural change which takes place due to some other change. In other words one change follows another change. This sentence pattern is similar to sentence pattern no.2.C of lesson 1. There we used the phrase "~to tomoni". Before "~ni shitagatte/ ~ni shitagau" either the dictionary form of a verb or a noun comes. Read the following examples related to the use of the phrase "!ni shitagatte/ ~ni shitagai".
- (As a result of the nearing of the exams, tension also increased.)
- (kougyouka: industrialization; shizen: natural; kankyou: environment; hakai: damage; As a result of industrialization, the natural environment got damaged.)
3. This sentence pattern is also very similar to or same as the third use of the phrase "~to tomoni" and the use of "~ni shitagatte". The phrase which we are going to learn here is "~ni tsurete/ ~ni tsure". This sentence pattern is again used to show a gradual change. The first change results and is followed by the second change. Same as the other two phrases here also either a noun or the dictionary form of the verb is used. Below are a few examples of this sentence pattern.
- (If the product is good then its price also is expensive.)
- (Along with the change in era there is a change in the method of marriage also.)
4. When you are indicating an object or a person at that time the sentence pattern "~ni taishite/ ~ni taishi/ ~ni taishitemo/ ~ni taishi suru" is used in Japanese grammar. This phrase basically means "towards". A noun is always used before this phrase. Read the following examples to understand this pattern properly.
- (You are not allowed to use impolite words towards guests.)
- (Mr. Chin has liking not only for Japanís economy but also holds liking towards the Japanese literature.)
5. This sentence pattern teaches us the use of the phrase "~ni tsuite/ ~ni tsuite wa/ ~ni tsuki/ ~ni tsuitemo/ ~ni tsuite no". This phrase literally means "regarding". When we are talking or thinking about something at that time to express this we mostly use this phrase. A noun comes before this phrase. The only exception is when you use "~no tsuite no" at that time noun comes after this phrase. Some examples related to this sentence pattern are given below.
- (There are many opinions regarding the root cause of this disease.)
- (I want a book regarding the methods of using this computer.)
6. When a person wants to put forward his/ her judgment or when after something he/ she wants to express his/ her point of view at that time "~ni totte/ ~ni totte wa/ ~ni tottemo/ ~ni totteno" phrase is used in Japanese grammar. This phrase when translated in English will mean "from point of view ofÖ". Again in this sentence pattern also a noun comes before the phrase except when we use "~ni totteno". When we use "ni totteno" at that time noun comes after this phrase. Letís study some examples related to this sentence pattern which are given below.
- (taisetsu: important; From my point of view this photograph is very important as compared to anything else.)
- (kankyou: environment; mondai: problem; jinrui: human race; kadai: problem; From the point of view of human race the environmental problem is the problem for everyone.)
7. The sentence pattern which we are going to learn now has two different uses and two different meanings accordingly. The sentence pattern is "~ni tomonatte/ ~ni tomonai/ ~ni tomonau". Following are its uses explained separately in detail along with the respective examples. A) The first use and meaning of this sentence pattern is according to/ in proportion to/ accordingly. When you use the sentence pattern in this way then either a noun or the root verb comes before this phrase. For example.
- (In proportion to the increasing population, the other problems are also increasing.)
- (In proportion to economic development, the environmental destruction has become a problem.)
B) The second use helps us to talk or tell about things which occur at the same time. Here before the phrase nouns are used. Read the following examples of this use.
- (jishin: earthquake; kasai: fire; hassei: occur; When earthquake occurs at the same time fire also takes place.)
- (jiyuu: freedom; sekinin: responsibilities; Along with freedom at the same time responsibilities were also received.)
8. Now in this sentence pattern we will be learning the use and meaning of the phrase "~ni yotte/ ~ni yori/ ~ni yoru/ ~ni yotte wa". This phrase has five different uses and meanings respectively. However one thing common in all these uses is that always before this phrase noun comes. Letís study each use keenly and understand them clearly.
A) In the first the phrase helps us to show who exactly has done a particular thing. In other words we can say it means "by". Following examples will make this use clear to you.
- (houan: government bill; kokkai: Japanese parliament; shounin: approve; The bills are approved by the Japanese parliament.)
- (ishi: doctor; shindan: diagnosis; kekka: result; houkoku: report; I will report the results of the diagnosis done by the doctor.)
B) In the second use this phrase is used to show the root cause of something. Hence it basically means "because of". Letís read some examples related to this use.
- (fuchuui: carelessness; jiko: accident; Sever accidents take place because of carelessness.)
(ansatsu: assassination; seiji: government; konran: confuse; The government of A country got confused because of the Prime ministerís assassination.)
C) The meaning of the phrase when we use it in the third way is "by means of" or "with the help of". Following are the examples of this use.
- (hanashiai: discussion; kaiketsu: solve; By means of discussion it is better to solve the problem.)
- (Bus is a convenient means of commutation but is time consuming.)
D) The forth use simply means "according to". The examples are as follows.
- (shuukan: customs; Customs ar different according to different countries.)
- (doryoku: hard work/ efforts; seika: result; The result will be according to the efforts put in.)
E) The fifth use of this sentence pattern which we will learn means "depending upon". When we use this phrase according to the fifth meaning, most of the time "~ni yotte wa" form is only used. Below we have provided few examples of this use.
- (fukusayou: side effects; Depending upon person to person, this medicine has its side effects.)
- (shuukyou: religion; kinjirareru: prohibit; Depending upon the religion meat is prohibited.)
This is the last sentence pattern which we have studied of this lesson. Since "~ni yoru" and its related forms have five different uses learn them very carefully. The rest of the sentence patterns are also equally important hence learn them also thoroughly. Letís go on to the next lesson now.
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