In this lesson we are going to learn various sentence patterns of Japanese grammar. Most of them are not at all difficult to understand. There is not much similarity or anything common in any of the sentence patterns which we are going to study now. There are approximately 10 patterns in this lesson. Like always examples and table have been provided for your help. So let us begin:
1) In the first sentence pattern we are going to learn a new usage of the particle "de". We have already studied the uses of "de" particle in JLPT level N5 grammar. However, this is a completely new usage which we are going to learn now. Here "de" particle is used to indicate the ingredients or raw material which we require to prepare or make something. We can also say that "de" particle in English means "with the help of" or "by using". Following are examples of this sentence pattern:
- (I made salad by using onion, tomato, radish etc.)
- (The shoes are made from leather and wood.)
2) In the sentence we are going to learn about the suffix "sou". In case of i-adjectives the "I" which is at the end is removed and instead "sou" is added. In the same way, in case of na-adjective "na" is removed and is replaced by "sou" at the end. We use "sou" to express our assumption about things which we can only see, smell or hear. In other words, many times we just see the physical appearance of certain things and assume something about it irrespective of the fact whether that thing is really of the same kind what we have assumed or is not. Hence we say that by using "sou" we express our assumptions. Following are few examples which will help you understand this sentence pattern more clearly.
- (That food seems to be delicious.)
- (This book did not seem to be interesting; therefore, I did not read it.)
3) When we express our feeling related to the five senses which are see, hear, taste, speak and smell at that time "ga suru" is used in Japanese language to express either of these senses. As these events take place naturally irrespective of the subject’s wish, always the "ga" particle is used immediately after the words of senses. In case you use "wo/o" particle then the meaning of the sentence will change completely. Example of this sentence pattern is given below:
- (It smells very good.)
- (This cheese has a bad taste.)
- (That window is making a rattling sound due to the strong wind.)
4) The next sentence pattern which we are going to learn is the use of "ka dou ka". This phrase literally means "is it like this or not". The first "ka" in this phrase is used as an alternative conjunction. The verbs or adjectives which come immediately before the first "ka" are always in their plain forms. So the construction of the sentence will be ..
Plain form of verb/ adjective + Ka + douka. Following are few examples:
- (I don’t know whether this camera is expensive or not.)
- (I don’t know whether Mr. Suhas will come or not.)
5) In this sentence pattern we will see the use of the phrase "–te mimasu" which means the "te" form of the verb plus mimasu. The literal English meaning of this phrase is "to do something/ action and see". In other words, it means "to try out something". This sentence pattern is basically used when we are talking or ask someone to examine something. The verb "miru" which is used in this phrase means "see". Whenever this phrase is used always remember that "miru" should be written only in hiragana and not in kanji. As told earlier also in this sentence construction the verb which is used before "miru" should be in its "te" form only. Have a look at the following examples:
A: Is it delicious?
B: I do not know whether it is delicious or not. Please try it (and see).
- ( I tried driving this car.)
6) The next grammar pattern which we are going to learn is "…mo…mo-arimasen/ nai". This pattern has a negative meaning to it. The grammar pattern means "neither this…nor that". If you make use of adjectives and nouns in this pattern then their forms change. The change which comes is shown below:
Ikeiyoushi or i-adjective: When we use i-adjective in a sentence at that time the "I" is removed and is replaced by "ku" at the end. E.g.: ookii > okiku; takai > takaku; yasui > yasuku
Nakeiyoushi or na-Adjective and Nouns: The rule of changing the forms is same for na-adjective and nouns. In case of na-adjective "na" is removed and replaced by "de" at the end. In the same way in case of nouns "de" is added at the end of noun. E.g.:
Na-adjective: sukina > sukide; kiraina > kiraide; jyoubuna > jyoubude
Nouns: enpitsu > enpitsude; tsukue > tsukuede
Following are the examples of each adjective and nouns using this sentence pattern.
- (The food is neither sweet nor spicy.)
- (This room is neither clean nor quiet.)
- (This is neither an ink pen nor a pencil.)
7) In the first sentence pattern of this lesson we have seen that "de" is used to show the raw material or ingredients used to make a certain thing. In the same way "kara" is also used for the same purpose of showing what all raw materials we use to prepare something. "kara" basically means "from" in English. But there is a little difference between the uses of these two words. When we make something and after it is completely prepared, when we look at it and if at that time it is difficult for us to tell which raw material is exactly used for making it then "kara is used. On the other hand, when we look at a prepared item and if we immediately can tell which raw material is used then at that time "de" particle is used. For example when we want to say that sugar is made from sugarcane then at that time "kara" is used because if a person is unaware of the fact that sugar is actually made from sugarcane directly sees the ready sugar then he will not be able to tell us what is the exact raw material used in producing sugar. On the other hand, when we see a leather purse or shoes we can easily say that the raw material used to produce these items is animal skin. Following are few examples, using the word "kara":
- (Butter is produced from milk.)
- (Jam is produced from strawberries.)
8) Till now we have learnt many uses of particle "ni". In the current sentence pattern we will learn a new use of the "ni" particle in Japanese grammar. In the new use "ni" particle means "used for/ for". It is used to show an intension or an aim. If a verb comes before "ni" particle in a sentence then in that case you have to add a particle "no" between the verb and "ni". Therefore the sentence structure will be verb + "no" + "ni". In case of nouns, simply add "ni" at the end of the noun. Following are some examples:
- (I use this dictionary for the study of Japanese language.)
- (Japanese people use chopsticks for eating rice.)
9) In this grammar pattern we will learn a new use of particles "no" and "ga". Both these particles are used for the same purpose in this pattern. "No" particle is mainly used to provide some special or important information. It is used to give more knowledge and information about whatever topic we are talking about. In the same way in place of "no" particle "ga" particle can also be used. Most of the time the verbs which come before "no" particle are used either in their "ta" form or plain forms. Following examples will make you understand this sentence pattern more clearly.
- (This is the photograph which was taken by Mr. Hayashi, the teacher.)
- (Which is the umbrella that Mr. Ali bought?)
10) When we completely finish performing an action, to show that completed status the form "te shimau" is used. "Te" means the "te" form of verb plus shimau. This form is also used to describe events where you are found in trouble or events which are not good. E.g.:
- (This novel was interesting, that is why I read it completely.)
- (During the summer holidays I completely forgot the Japanese language.)
This was the last sentence pattern to be learnt of this lesson. As almost all the sentence patterns of this lesson are very different from each other therefore study this lesson very carefully. The grammar patterns are not difficult to understand but if not studied sincerely you might end up confusing yourself. So to avoid this situation learn each pattern one at a time and prepare your own examples after you finish each sentence pattern. All the best.
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