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Learn japanese with the help of Plain form of Japanese Verbs


Japanese verbs are divided into two broad forms, which are the polite form and the plain form. The polite form of verbs is used frequently in formal conversations. The plain for of verbs is used while talking with friends and family. In other words, it is used for communicating in informal situations. This form consists of verbs of all the three groups. The dictionary form, te form, ta form, nai form and nai de form are all different type of forms of verbs which come under the plain form of Japanese verbs.

Te form of Japanese Verb:

While changing a verb into "te form" there is different rules for different groups. The verbs in this form end either in "te" or in "de". We always need to consider the dictionary form of a verb while changing it into the "te form". In case of group 1

  • If the end of the root verb is either "u", "tsu" or "ru" then remove that ending and add "tte". In other words, remove u, tsu, ru respectively and add a small tsu and te. Here the rule of double consonants plays a role. E.g. kau (to buy) - katte
  • If the root verb ends with either with "mu", "bu" or "nu" then remove that end and replace it by adding "nde". In other words, remove "mu", "be", "nu" respectively and add the nasal sounf "n" and "de". Here the rule of nasal sound "n" comes into action. E.g. Yomu (To read) – Yonde
  • If the root verb ends in "ku" then remove "ku" and add "ite". E.g. kiku (To listen) – kiite
  • If the root verb ends in "gu" then remove "gu" and add "ide". E.g. Oyogu (To swim) – oyoide
  • If the root verb ends in "su" then remove "su" and add "shite". E.g. kasu (To lend) – kashite

In case of group 2 the only rule to follow for all the verbs included in this group is, remove "ru" from the root verb form and add "te" at the end. E.g. miru (To see) – mite

In case of Group 3 as there are only two verbs, their form is as follows:

  • Suru (To do) – Shite
  • Kuru (To come) – Kite

It is very important to learn the rules for group 1. Comparatively rule for group 2 is very easy and group 3 is the easiest.

Ta Form of Japanese verb:

Once you are clear with how to change a verb into "te" form then it is very easy to change the verbs into "ta" form. "Ta" form is the past tense of Japanese verbs in plain form. The rule for group 1 verbs is, first change the verb into "te" form. Next step will be just replacing the end "te" to "ta" and in case of "de" replacing it by "da". E.g.

kau (to buy) – katte – katta Oyogu (To swim) – oyoide – Oyoida

In case of group 2 just remove "te" and add "ta". In other words, add "ta" at the end of the masu base form of the verbs of this group. E.g. tabe (to eat) – tabeta

In case of group 3, "shite" becomes "shita" and in the same way, "kite" become "kita" Nai Form of Japanese verb:

A Japanese verb when used in the "nai form" indicates some negative meaning of the sentence. This form also has different rules for each group. Again, here also we have to first consider the dictionary form of verbs irrespective of the group to which they belong. Let’s see each group one by one.

In group1, first convert the verb into its dictionary form. All the "u" sound consonants should be removed and all the "a" sound should be added. This means that ku, su, tsu, nu, hu, mu, ru, gu, zu, bu and pu will be replaced by ka, sa, ta, na, ha, ma, ra, ga, za, ba and pa respectively. There is only one exception for "u" ending root verb. The verbs having root verbs ending with "u" will be replaced by "wa" and not "a". The last step would be to add "nai" to all the "a" ending verbs. E.g. kau (To buy) – kawa – kawanai Wakaru (To understand) – wakara- Wakaranai

In group2, directly add nai to the stem form of the verb. This applies to all the verbs, which come under group 2. E.g. Akeru (To open) – ake – akenai

The "nai form" of the two verbs of group 3 is "shinai" and "konai". As the verbs of this group do not follow any rules, they have to be learnt as given.

Following are the tables that have the Japanese verbs and their different forms according to their groups. Japanese plain verbs of group godandoushi
godandoushi Japanese plain verbs.
godandoushi plain Japanese verbs.
Japanese Plain godandoushi verbs
ichidandoushi japanese plain verbs
ichidandoushi plain japanese  verbs
plain japanese verbs of ichidandoushi
Japanese fukusoku plain verbs


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