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E, To, Ya and No Particles


The Japanese particle "e" has only one use but a significant one. Without using this particle, a sentence will not have any meaning. The Japanese particles "to" and "ya" have a similar meaning. "ya" particle is some times used as a substitute for "to" particle but only in few cases.
"No" particle has more than one use. It is very important to understand how to use Japanese particles while constructing a meaningful sentence. Following is the explanation of the various uses of Japanese particles "E", "To", "Ya" and "No":"E" Particle: When the hiragana consonant "he" is used as a particle then it is pronounced as "e". The particle "e" has only one but very important use in Japanese grammar. The movement of a person from one place to another is shown by the "e" particle. It indicates the destination to which one wants to go. E.g.:

Yamamoto san wa kaishya e ikimasu. (Mr. Yamamoto will go to the company.)

In the example, the destination to which Mr. Yamamoto wants to go is the company. Hence, the company is shown by "e" particle.

To Particle: The particle "to", means "and" or "along with" depending upon the context of the sentence. When used as a conjunction it means "and". The particle joins two or more nouns or common nouns. While performing an action with the cooperation of some one else at that time "to" particle means "along with". It shows the person who is helping or cooperating with the main subject of the sentence. E.g.:

Tsukue no ue ni kudamono to gyunyu to shinbun ga arimasu. (There are fruits and milk and newspaper on the table.)

Watashi wa haha to nihon e ikimasu. ( I will go to Japan along with my mother.)

In the first example, the meaning of "to" particle is "and". In the second example, the meaning of "to" particle is "along with".

Ya Particle: The particles "to" and "ya" have very similar meaning. Both mean "and" but there is a little difference in their uses. As stated above, "to" particle joins two or more nouns or common nouns. "Ya" particle is used when we want to tell things which are present in a particular area. Instead of specifying, the name of each and every object we can just talk about one or two and den use the pattern "nado ga arimasu". The complete grammar pattern is "– ya – ya nado ga arimasu. Even only "ya" particle is also used at times. E.g.:

Reizouko no naka ni yasai ya kudamono ya pan nado ga arimasu. (There vegetables and fruits and bread etc. inside the fridge.)

The area we are talking about is the fridge. Here instead of listing down each object present in the fridge we have used – ya – ya nado ga arimasu, which in shart means (-and – and etc.). Again it is not a rule that "ya" particle has to be used twice; it can be used once or thrice also.

"No" Particle: The particle "no" has more than one use. The various uses and their respective meaning according to the context are as below:-

  1. One of the meaning of the "no" particle is "of". It indicates what a person possesses. In other words it comes after the noun in a sentence. E.g.:
    Kore wa watashi no shiatsu desu. (This is my shirt.)
    Here I am showing that this shirt is mine.

  2. The particle can be instead of a noun. E.g.: Kutsushita wo kudasai. Sono akai no wo kudasai. (Please give me shoes. Please give those red one’s.)
    In this example instead of again saying that give me those red shoes, I directly use the particle "no".

  3. This particle is used before the words, which show time like "toki" and "ato".
    "no toki" means "at the time of" and "no ato" means "after". Example of both of these is as follows:
    shiken no toki takusan benkyou wo shimasu. (At the time of exams I study a lot.)
    asagohan no ato de gakkou e ikimasu. (After breakfast, I will go to school.)

All the above mention Japanese particles have very few or even one use. They are not at all difficult to use while communicating. Again, one very important thing to remember is that all these particles are always written in hiragana only.

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