Ga, Wa and Mo Particle
Ga particle: On many occasions, it is said that in Japanese grammar "wa" and "ga" particles are the same. However, this is not true because "wa" particle indicates the subject of a sentence and "ga" particle indicates the topic of a sentence. "wa" is used to specify or give importance to one single object or person. On the other hand, "ga" particle is used in a generalized way. It does not give importance to only one thing. Following are the different ways in which the Japanese particle ga is used in Japanese language:-
Japanese grammar does not have a long list of particles. In fact, Japanese particles are few but almost every particle has more than one use and meaning. Ga, Wa and mo are the three particles which we will be learning. The list of the uses of each of these three particles along with the explanation of its uses and meanings is as follows:-
Wa particle: Whenever hiragana consonant "ha" is used as a particle, it is pronounced as "wa". This is a rule of Japanese grammar, which everybody should always remember and follow. The "wa" particle has only one use but is the most important in Japanese language. Th e role this particle plays is, it shows the subject of the sentence. In other words, it is the subject indicator of the sentence. The "wa" particle always follows the subject in the sentence. E.g.:
Sono hito wa sensei desu. (That person is a teacher.)
In this example, we are talking about a person who is a teacher. Hence, the main subject in the sentence is that person.
- To show existence: Always with the verbs arimasu (for non-living things) and imasu (for living things) ga particle is used. It shows the existence of a thing or person. Particle ga comes befor arimasu or imasu.
E.g. : Kurasu ni gakuseitachi ga imasu. (Students are inside the class.)
Kurasu ni isu to tsukue ga arimasu. (There are chairs and tables in the class.)
- Conjunction: Ga particle is used as a conjunction meaning "but". It joins two sentences, which contradict each other.
E.g.: Takushi wa benri desu ga takai desu. (Taxi is convenient but expensive.)
In the above example, the sentence before ga particle contradicts the sentence after ga particle.
- Ga particle is always used with the words suki (like); kirai (dislike); jyouzuu (expert); heta (not expert) and hoshii(want/ desire). Following is the example of each of these:-
Watashi wa dansu ga suki desu. (I like dance.)
Watashi wa ringo ga kirai desu. (I dislike apples.)
Ueda san wa kanji ga jyouzuu desu. (Mrs. Ueda is an expert in kanji.)
Imotou wa e ga heta desu. (My younger sister is not expert in drawing.)
Watashi wa kuruma ga hoshii desu. (I desire to get a car.)
- "ga" particle is also used as an interrogative pronoun.
E.g.: Dare ga Tanaka san desu ka. (Who IS Mr. Tanaka?)
- Another use of the Japanese particle wa is to point out some natural phenomenon:
Mo particle: In Japanese grammar, one of the simplest particles to understand and to use it the "mo" particle. This particle in English means "also". E.g.:
Nakaji san wa nihonjin desu. Nino san mo nihonjin desu. (Nakaji is a Japanese National. Nino is also a Japanese national.)
All the above Japanese particles are very easy to understand and to use in the daily conversation.